Pre-University (CIE) Comparative Government: Specimen Questions with Answers 40 - 41 of 53

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The English constitution is entirely unwritten. There are certain charters, petitions and statutes in which certain principles of the constitution have been embodied in writing. The British constitution have been derived not from a single source but from different sources.

Question 40 (2 of 2 Based on Passage)


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Short Answer▾

“England has no constitution” explain.


  • Thomas Paine and Alexis de Tocqueville are of the opinion are of the opinion that England has no constitution. Thomas Paine declared that where a constitution cannot be produced in a visible form, there is none. Similarly de Tocqueville said that in England the constitution may go on changing continually or rather it does not exist.
  • These opinions that have been given by these theorists isn՚t entirely correct because the constitution of England is unwritten as most of the principles and rules controlling the distribution and regulating the exercise of governmental power have never been reduced to writing in a single document.
  • They might have misconceived the meaning of the term constitution and the situation in England, as this is also true that there can՚t be any state without a constitution- a body of fundamental rules and principles determining the structure of the state. Hence, it may be said that England has a constitution but mostly of an unwritten type.

Question 41


Describe in Detail


What do you understand by Federal Guarantees of the States in USA?


In order to strengthen the position of state in the federal system, the constitution imposes certain obligations in the federal government viz respect for their terrestrial integrity, guarantee for a Republican form of government and protection against invasion and domestic violence. Here is the brief explanation of these guarantees.

  • Respect for territorial integrity: The federal govt. has been required to respect territorial integrity of the states. no states can be, made to lose its territory save by its own consent.
  • Guarantee of a Republican form of Government: the Federal govt. guarantees to every state a Republican form of govt. however, the constitution has not elucidated the word “Republican” . Hence, it has been subjected to varied interpretations. The Supreme Court has refused to pronounce its judgment on the matter which is political rather than constitutional or judicial. The President or the Congress can also give their interpretations.
  • Protection against invasions and civil commotion: the constitution enjoins upon the Federal Govt. to protect each of the state against invasion and on the application of the legislature or of the executive against domestic violence.
  • Obligation of states towards Federal Government. : the states also owes certain obligations towards the federal govt. the states are required to conduct elections to federal offices as the constitution does not make provision for a separate federal election machinery.

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