IGCSE Information & Communication Technology Paper-1: Specimen Questions with Answers 46 - 46 of 46

Question number: 46


Appeared in Year: 2009



Choose those items which are not part of an expert system

(i) Bar code reader

(ii) Spreadsheet

(iii) Dot matrix printer

(iv) Inference engine

(v) Interactive input screen

(vi) Knowledge base

(vii) Rules base

(vii) Search engine


Choice (4)


i, ii, iii, vii


i, ii, v, viii


i, ii, iii, viii


i, iii, iv, v




  • An expert system is AI software that uses knowledge stored in a knowledge base to solve problems that would usually require a human expert thus preserving a human expert’s knowledge in its knowledge base.

  • They can advise users as well as provide explanations to them about how they reached a particular conclusion or advice.


  • Mycin

  • Dendral

The components of expert system include:

  • Knowledge base: The knowledge base represents facts and rules. It consists of knowledge in a particular domain as well as rules to solve a problem, procedures and intrinsic data relevant to the domain.

  • Inference engine: The function of the inference engine is to fetch the relevant knowledge from the knowledge base, interpret it and to find a solution relevant to the user’s problem. The inference engine acquires the rules from its knowledge base and applies them to the known facts to infer new facts. Inference engines can also include an explanation and debugging abilities.

  • Knowledge acquisition and learning module: The function of this component is to allow the expert system to acquire more and more knowledge from various sources and store it in the knowledge base.

  • User interface: This module makes it possible for a non-expert user to interact with the expert system and find a solution to the problem.

  • Explanation module: This module helps the expert system to give the user an explanation about how the expert system reached a particular conclusion.

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