IGCSE Information & Communication Technology Paper-1: Specimen Questions with Answers 31 - 32 of 46

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Question 31

Appeared in Year: 2009



Which of the following statements describe advantages of backup media?


Choice (4)


Stored items are not lost when you switch off the computer.


Easy to lose; get stolen or damaged as very small.


Extremely portable.


Both c. and a. are correct




The statements Extremely portable. and Stored items are not lost when you switch off the computer. describe the advantages of backup media. Backup storage is intended as a copy of the storage that is usually actively in use so that, if the storage medium such as a hard disk fails and data is lost on that medium, it can be recovered from the copy.

The main advantages are:

  • Small and portable.
  • Very cheap to produce.
  • Very large storage capacity.
  • Stores and retrieves data much faster.
  • They are extremely portable, so the user can take them wherever they go.
  • They՚re durable, because they have no moving parts.
  • Security – allowing a very quick scan of all data stored.
  • Some of the storage devices are waterproof.

Question 32

Appeared in Year: 2009

Write in Short

Short Answer▾

Name the following images from the list given below

A Star-Ring Topology, B Star-Bus Topology
A Star-Ring Topology, B Star-Bus Topology
Star-ring topologyBus topologyMesh topology
Star topologyStar-bus topologyStar-mesh topology


A – Star-ring topology

B – Star-bus topology

  • Hybrid topology is a combination of more than two topologies. In computer networking, a network structure that contains more than two topologies is known as hybrid topology. It inherits the advantages and disadvantages of included topologies.
  • The hybrid network topology includes a mix of bus topology, mesh topology, ring topology, star topology, and tree topology. Combination of Star-Ring and Star-Bus networks is the most common examples of the hybrid network topology.
    • Star-Ring network topology: In a Star-Ring topology, a set of star topologies is connected with a ring topology as the adjoining topology. Joining each star topology to the ring topology is a wired connection. Information from a given star topology reaching a connecting node in the main ring topology and the data can flow either in a bidirectional or unidirectional manner. A Uni-directional ring topology can transfer data in either clockwise or counterclockwise direction. Thus, a uni-direction ring topology is a half-duplex, whereas a Bi-directional ring topology can transfer and receive data at the same time. Thus, a bidirectional ring topology can be called a full-duplex network.
    • Star-Bus network topology: A Star-Bus topology is the combination of star network topology and bus network topology, in Star-Bus network a set of star topologies are interconnected by a central bus network. Joining each star topology to the bus topology results the Star-Bus topology.

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