IGCSE Enterprise: Specimen Questions with Answers 32 - 33 of 49

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Case Study: 3

Fazzari and Petersen (1993) argue that investment in working capital is sensitive to cash flow. Their findings show that firms that have larger capacity to generate internal finance have higher current asset levels. Chiou et al. (2006) also provide evidence from Taiwan to point to the influence of cash flow on investment in working capital and suggest that firms with greater cash flow have higher investment in working capital. Hill et al. (2010) show that firms with available internal cash flow capacity and capital market access invest more in working capital. By contrasting the two spectrums of researches, it can be suggested that the level of investment in working capital depends on the cash flow availability of firms (Fazzari et al. , 1988) . As argued by Banos-Caballero et al. (2014) , a positive working capital level needs financing, and therefore cash flow availability plays an important role in the relationship between WCM and firm performance.

These positive and negative influences of NWC on performance suggest that investment in working capital involve a trade-off (Baños-Caballero et al. , 2012; Deloof, 2003) . Therefore, to test the effect of cash flow on the relationship between NWC and performance, I estimate a non-linear regression similar to that of Banos-Caballero et al. (2012) and Banos-Caballero et al. (2014) . In this regard, it can be argued that whilst firms with limited cash flow should strive to achieve a reduction in working capital investment to avoid the need for expensive external finance; on the contrary, firms with available internal cash flow should increase investment in working capital in order to improve performance. Banos-Caballero et al. (2014) conclude in their research that managers should avoid negative effects on firm performance because of additional financing expenses. Internal cash flow can be used to finance investments in working capital without the need to raise costly external finance (Autukaite and Molay, 2011) . Banos-Caballero et al. (2014) examined the functional form of the relation between investment in working capital and corporate performance by taken into account financial constraint and found a convex relationship between investment in working capital and firm performance.

Question 32 (7 of 12 Based on Passage)

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“Influence of cash flow on investment in working capital and suggest that firms with greater cash flow have higher investment in working capital” Answer the following questions-

State the advantages of Net Working Capital to a firm.

Explanation

Net working capital refers to the difference between current assets and current liabilities. Current liabilities are those claims of outsiders which are expected to mature for payment with an accounting year and include creditors, bills payable, and outstanding expenses. Net working capital can be positive or negative. Net working capital will have a positive balance when the current assets exceed the current liabilities. A negative net working capital occurs when current liabilities are in the excess of current assets.

Advantages of Net Working Capital Are

  • Low financing cost and high profitability
  • Lower carrying and handling cost
  • Highly efficient working capital management

Question 33 (8 of 12 Based on Passage)

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“Managers should avoid negative effects on firm performance because of additional financing expenses”

Explain the term Break-Even analysis.

Explanation

In financial terms, “Break-even point refers to revenues needed to cover a company՚s total amount of fixed and variable expenses during a specified period of time” The break-even point is the point where the gains are equal to the losses. The point shows when a firm՚s investment will give a positive return. The point where sales or revenues equal expenses. The point where total costs equal total revenues. At the break-even point a firm makes no profit or loss at the break-even point. It is the limit set by the firm beyond which profit are determined and margins are set.

Fixed and Variable Expenses

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