IGCSE Enterprise: Specimen Questions with Answers 23 - 24 of 49

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Case Study: 4

Jones and Little (2000) present a critical analysis of the role of partnership in new public management in the UK, in a paper called Rural challenges: partnership and new rural governance. The authors note that: “whatever definition is favored, partnerships or networks between the public, private and voluntary sectors are an important part of what constitutes novel forms of governance” in the UK. The authors question the uncritical promotion of this form of governance, which emerged from the “traumatic neo-liberal restructuring of urban politics in the 1980՚s” and its transfer to rural areas, where it brings the requirement for rural organizations and In the field of public policy, partnership is often viewed as the second generation of efforts to bring competitive market discipline to bear on government operations (after the first generation efforts of privatization) . The authors argue that contemporary discussions of partnership approaches lead to submergence of key issues about power relations, accountability, public spending levels, and equitable resource allocation in the systematic addressing of the needs of rural communities. They question the culture of partnership and its suitability as a means of securing effective rural regeneration, arguing for greater scrutiny to be paid to its increased political currency and practical applications.

In Government – non-profit partnership: A defining framework, Brinkerhoff (2002a) notes that partnership has emerged as an increasingly popular approach to privatization and government – non-profit relations. However, there is no consensus on what partnership means, and its practice varies. The author provides a useful review of partnership literatures and refines the definition of partnership using the concepts of ‘mutuality’ and ‘organizational identity.’ These concepts are used as the two axes of an inter-organizational relationship matrix, in which partnership is distinguished from three other basic relationship types: contracting, extension, and co-option or gradual absorption.

Question 23 (10 of 12 Based on Passage)

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Partnership has emerged as an increasingly popular approach to privatization and government – non-profit relations. Based on this statement answer the following questions-

Explain the statement public-private partnership.

Explanation

United Nations defines PPP as “innovative methods used by the public sector to contract with the private sector who bring their capital and their ability to deliver projects on time and to budget, while the public sector retains the responsibility to provide these services to the public in a way that benefits the public and delivers economic development and improvement in the quality of life.”

PPP is an arrangement where private parties participate in or provide support for the provision of infrastructure. PPP describes a government service or private business venture which is funded and operated through a partnership of government and one or more private sector company. PPP is not procurement of an asset but the payment of a stream of services under specified terms and conditions.

Question 24 (11 of 12 Based on Passage)

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Give two leadership skills that should be possessed by an entrepreneur.

Explanation

Entrepreneurial leadership means organizing and motivating people to achieve the objectives set by an entrepreneur by taking risk, innovation, utilizing opportunities and managing of the dynamic business environment.

Some of the Leadership Skills Possessed by an Entrepreneur Are

  • Communication skills: The Leader should be able to clearly communicate the plan to achieve the organizational goals. Effective entrepreneur as a leader communicates information and objectives between various departments across various levels. Through proper channelization of message an entrepreneur avoids conflicts and misunderstandings among the employees.
  • Vision: An entrepreneur should have clear vision of the present and future goals. He should know exactly what he wants and how to get there. Through team work entrepreneurs communicate their vision to transform the objectives into results.
  • Supportive: An entrepreneur being a leader should realize the importance of support a team needs to achieve the set goals and objectives. They should go out of their way to provide all the support to the team. They should not punish the employees when they make a mistake.
  • Self-belief: being a leader an entrepreneur should have belief and confidence in himself. They should be aware of their strength and weakness and should demonstrate their skill without any hesitation.
Leadership Skills of an Entrepreneur

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