IGCSE Enterprise: Specimen Questions with Answers 21 - 22 of 49

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Case Study: 4

Jones and Little (2000) present a critical analysis of the role of partnership in new public management in the UK, in a paper called Rural challenges: partnership and new rural governance. The authors note that: “whatever definition is favored, partnerships or networks between the public, private and voluntary sectors are an important part of what constitutes novel forms of governance” in the UK. The authors question the uncritical promotion of this form of governance, which emerged from the “traumatic neo-liberal restructuring of urban politics in the 1980՚s” and its transfer to rural areas, where it brings the requirement for rural organizations and In the field of public policy, partnership is often viewed as the second generation of efforts to bring competitive market discipline to bear on government operations (after the first generation efforts of privatization) . The authors argue that contemporary discussions of partnership approaches lead to submergence of key issues about power relations, accountability, public spending levels, and equitable resource allocation in the systematic addressing of the needs of rural communities. They question the culture of partnership and its suitability as a means of securing effective rural regeneration, arguing for greater scrutiny to be paid to its increased political currency and practical applications.

In Government – non-profit partnership: A defining framework, Brinkerhoff (2002a) notes that partnership has emerged as an increasingly popular approach to privatization and government – non-profit relations. However, there is no consensus on what partnership means, and its practice varies. The author provides a useful review of partnership literatures and refines the definition of partnership using the concepts of ‘mutuality’ and ‘organizational identity.’ These concepts are used as the two axes of an inter-organizational relationship matrix, in which partnership is distinguished from three other basic relationship types: contracting, extension, and co-option or gradual absorption.

Question 21 (8 of 12 Based on Passage)

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What is a sole trader firm?

Explanation

A sole trader firm also refers to a sole proprietorship, is an unincorporated business which includes just the owner who has the legal rights of the company, he pays the personal income tax on the profits earned by the business.

This type of firm is the easiest type of business to start because it doesn՚t have government regulation.

Question 22 (9 of 12 Based on Passage)

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Partnership has emerged as an increasingly popular approach to privatization and government – non-profit relations. Based on this statement answer the following questions-

Give two examples of Public-Private partnership.

Explanation

Public-Private Partnerships are found in almost every aspect of public infrastructure programs. Examples of Public-Private Partnership in UK are-

  • Lightning of street, transmission of energy, solar energy projects and other energy projects.
  • Development of natural resources.
  • Construction of roads, hospitals, schools, defense area, accommodation for university students etc.
  • Waste management, public security, transportation of water etc.
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