IGCSE English (First Language): Specimen Questions with Answers 164 - 165 of 179

Passage

Passage-1

Music – The Hope Raiser

“One of my parents’ deepest fears, I suspect, is that society would not properly value me as a musician, that I wouldn’t be appreciated. I had very good grades in high school, I was good in science and math, and they imagined that as a doctor or a research chemist or an engineer, I might be more appreciated than I would be as a musician. I still remember my mother’s remark when I announced my decision to apply to music school. She said, “You’re wasting your SAT scores! ” On some level, I think, my parents were not sure what the value of music was, what its purpose was. And they loved music: they listened to classical music all the time. They just weren’t clear about its function. So, let me talk about that a little bit, because we live in a society that puts music in the “arts and entertainment” section of the newspaper. Serious music, the kind your kids are about to engage in, has absolutely nothing whatsoever to do with entertainment, in fact it’s the opposite of entertainment. Let me talk a little bit about music, and how it works.

One of the first cultures to articulate how music really works was that of the ancient Greeks. And this is going to fascinate you: the Greeks said that music and astronomy were two sides of the same coin. Astronomy was the study of relationships between observable, permanent, external objects, and music was the study of relationships between invisible, internal, hidden objects.

Music has a way of finding the big, invisible moving pieces inside our hearts and souls and helping us figure out the position of things inside us. Let me give you some examples of how this works. One of the most profound musical compositions of all time is the “Quartet for the End of Time” written by a French composer Olivier Messiaen in 1,940. Messiaen was 31 years old when France entered the war against Nazi Germany. He was captured by the Germans in June of 1,940 and imprisoned in a prisoner-of-war camp.

He was fortunate to find a sympathetic prison guard who gave him paper and a place to compose, and was fortunate to have musician colleagues in the camp, a cellist, a violinist, and a clarinetist. Messiaen wrote his quartet with these specific players in mind. It was performed in January 1,941 for four thousand prisoners and guards in the prison camp. Today it is one of the most famous masterworks in the Repertoire.

Given what we have since learned about life in the Nazi camps, why would anyone in his right mind waste time and energy writing or playing music? There was barely enough energy on a good day to find food and water, to avoid a beating, to stay warm, to escape torture-why would anyone bother with music? And yet-even from the concentration camps, we have poetry, we have music, we have visual art; it wasn’t just this one fanatic Messiaen; many, many people created art. Why? Well, in a place where people are only focused on survival, on the bare necessities, the obvious conclusion is that art must be, somehow, essential for life. The camps were without money, without hope, without commerce, without recreation, without basic respect, but they were not without art. Art is part of survival; art is part of the human spirit, an unquenchable expression of who we are. Art is one of the ways in which we say, “I am alive, and my life has meaning. “

Passage-2

In September of 2,001 I was a resident of Manhattan. On the morning of September 12, 2,001, I reached a new understanding of my art and its relationship to the world. I sat down at the piano that morning at 1 a. m to practice as was my daily routine; I did it by force of habit, without thinking about it. I lifted the cover on the keyboard, and opened my music, and put my hands on the keys and just as soon took my hands off it. And I sat there and thought, does this even matter? Isn’t this completely irrelevant? Playing the piano right now, given what happened in this city yesterday, seems silly, absurd, irreverent, and pointless. Why am I here? What place has a musician in this moment in time? Who needs a piano player right now? I was completely lost. And then I, along with the rest of New York, went through the journey of getting through that week. I did not play the piano that day, and in fact I contemplated briefly whether I would ever want to play the piano again. And then I observed how we got through the day.

At least in my neighborhood, we didn’t shoot hoops or play Scrabble. We didn’t play cards to pass the time, we didn’t watch TV, we didn’t shop, we most certainly did not go to the mall. The first organized activity that I saw in New York, on the very evening of September 1 1th, was singing. People sang around fire houses, people sang “We Shall Overcome. ” Lots of people sang “America the Beautiful. ” The first organized public event that I remember was the Brahms Requiem, later that week, at Lincoln Center, with the New York Philharmonic. The first organized public expression of grief, our first communal response to that historic event, was a concert. That was the beginning of a sense that life might go on. The US Military secured the airspace, but recovery was led by the arts, and by music, that very night. From these two experiences, I have come to understand that music is not part of “arts and entertainment” as the newspaper section would have us believe. It’s not a luxury, a lavish thing that we fund from leftovers of our budgets, not a plaything or an amusement or a pastime. Music is a basic need of human survival. Music is one of the ways we make sense of our lives, one of the ways in which we express feelings when we have no words, a way for us to understand things with our hearts when we can’t with our minds. Frankly, ladies and gentlemen, I expect you not only to master music; I expect you to save the planet. If there is a future wave of wellness on this planet, of harmony, of peace, of an end to war, of mutual understanding, of equality, of fairness, I don’t expect it will come from a government, a military force, or a corporation. I no longer even expect it to come from the religions of the world, which together seem to have brought us as much war as they have peace.

If there is a future of peace for humankind, if there is to be an understanding of how these invisible, internal things should fit together, I expect it will come from the artists, because that’s what we do. As in the concentration camp and the evening of 9/1 1, the artistes are the ones who might be able to help us with our internal, invisible lives. “

Question 164 (1 of 2 Based on Passage)

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Answer the following Questions based on passage 1 and passage 2.

How did Messiaen point out the significance of the powers of music to the prisoners in the concentration camp? (Marks 10)

Explanation

In the concentration camp there was no hope of life. When Messiaen was in the concentration camp, he spent his time by composing music. He wrote his famous Quartet for the End of Time. It was performed in January. 1,941 before the prisoners and guards. According to Messiaen, music is the basic need of human survival. Art is a part of human spirit. It is an expression of who we are. Though the inmates of the camp had no hope, money, and recreation they were not without art.

Question 165 (2 of 2 Based on Passage)

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Answer the following Questions based on passage 1 and passage 2.

Describe the courageous way the Americans overcame the “Fall of the Twin Towers. ” (Marks 10)

Explanation

The Twin Towers of America were destroyed by the terrorist and destroyed on September 11. 2,001. They hijacked the planes and drove the planes into the Twin Towers. America came to a standstill on that terrible day. There was confusion and fear everywhere. But Americans showed great confidence and stood united. They overcame grief by taking music into their hands, Famous songs like “We shall overcome” and “America the Beautiful” were sung by the people around the firehouses. A public event at Lincoln Center was organized to express grief and communal response to the tragic event. They showed to the world that life must go on despite pain and grief. They recovered fast that very night itself with the help of music.