IGCSE Development Studies: Specimen Questions with Answers 11 - 12 of 98


Removing Poverty

Question 11 (4 of 7 Based on Passage)


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What do you mean by poverty?


Poverty is the state where one lacks socially acceptable amount or possessions in material. When the people lack the basic means to satisfy their basic needs is referred to as poverty. Basic needs refer to the needs required for survival or the needs which represents the standard of living prevailing in a country. Some examples of poverty are-

  • Poor health
  • Low level of education

  • Inability to work

  • High rate of disorderly behavior

  • Lack of food, clothing, and shelter

The income of the people is so low that the basic human needs cannot be met. Every country has its own threshold level of poverty which is used in the determination of how many people in a country are affected by poverty. Poverty is of various types’ like- Absolute poverty, relative poverty, Situational poverty, generational poverty, rural poverty, and urban poverty. Thus, poverty is a multifaceted which includes social, economic, and political elements.

Question 12 (5 of 7 Based on Passage)


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What are the common characteristics of developing countries?


Most of the world population lives in the developing world. Three-fourth of the world population is by developing countries. The level of technological development is relatively low in these countries which affect both agricultural efficiency and industrial development despite the availability of local resources. On the international stage the developing countries faces challenges, and are dominated by and often harmed by the decisions of developed countries over which they have no control.

  • Low standards of living, characteristics by low incomes, inequality, poor health, and inadequate education.
  • Developing countries have low levels of productivity.

  • High rates of population growth and dependency burdens

  • High and rising levels of unemployment and underemployment

  • Substantial dependence on agricultural production and primary production and primary product export.

  • Prevalence of imperfect markets and limited information

  • Dominance, dependence, and vulnerability in international relations.