IGCSE Development Studies: Specimen Questions with Answers 97 - 98 of 98

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Passage

Sustainable Development Matrix

Question 97 (5 of 6 Based on Passage)

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Give three reasons for deforestation.

Explanation

Deforestation is the large-scale removal of tree which is practiced frequently. Deforestation provides tree as a source of fuel, land, timber. Lack of conservation of tree lead to deforestation which affects animal and lands. More than half of the world՚s animal and plant species lives in the forest which destroyed mainly due to agriculture. Deforestation affects animals and atmosphere and leads to landslides and flooding.

Reasons for deforestation are as follows:

  • Agriculture: Agriculture is responsible for around 80 % of the deforestation. Rising demand for raising crops and livestock is responsible for deforestation.
  • Logging: Both legal and illegal logging causes deforestation. Logging often leads to expansion of roads.
  • Fuelwood: This activity is mostly undertaken by the residents to fulfill the needs of energy for their survival. This also adds to the exportation of timber at a large scale.

Question 98 (6 of 6 Based on Passage)

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State the rules for making forest sustainable

Explanation

We cannot survive on this planet without forests. Forest absorbs carbon dioxide from our atmosphere and produce the oxygen for us. Forest helps to regulate the global climate by storing carbon dioxide and absorbs 40 % of the emissions of fossil fuel produced by humans. Sustainable forestry balances the environment and the wildlife and the communities of the forest. Various steps can be taken by the business and the society for the sustainable development of the forest and nature.

  • By establishing protected areas and conserving biodiversity. Through protected areas the forest mangers minimize the erosion, avoid the use of pesticides and chemicals, protect waterways, maintains genetic diversity, proper disposal of waste etc.
  • Prevent the forest conversion for commercial purpose and protect high conservation value forest that contain significant biodiversity.
  • Forest activities must be put clearly into plan that how many trees can be harvested per acre and the frequency with such activity can take place again keeping in mind the growth and regeneration of species.

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