IGCSE Development Studies: Specimen Questions with Answers 88 - 89 of 98

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Passage

Employment Structure

Question 88 (4 of 7 Based on Passage)

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Short Answer▾

What is the meaning of underemployment? In which economic sector is under employment conditions more prevalent and why?

Explanation

A condition in which everyone appears working but no one is fully employed. This is the situation of underemployment. People affected by such type of employment are not able to utilize their potential and capacity in full.

Underemployment Exist in the Primary Sector Because

  • In this sector comprises the poorest section of society in majority.
  • People engaged in this sector are illiterate or semi-literate.

Question 89 (5 of 7 Based on Passage)

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How does employment structure changes overtime?

Explanation

Stages of Development Countries

Primary Decreases

  • For farm workers mechanization reduces and rural workers migrate to the urban area.
  • Raw materials exhaust which leads to loss in mining jobs
  • Rural population decreases due to migration and people prefer better paid and less physical activity jobs.

Secondary Increases First then Decrease

  • Initially industrialization requires large number of workforces
  • Automation replaces factory jobs
  • Movement of manufacturing industries from MEDCs to NICs where availability of land and labor is cheaper.

Tertiary Increase

  • In urban areas the service sector is large and growing.
  • With the development of a country demand for service increases like education, tourism, heath.
  • Growth of jobs in the MEDCs in the knowledge economy which based on information and knowledge processing.
  • Increase is producer services.

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