IGCSE Development Studies: Specimen Questions with Answers 88 - 89 of 98

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Employment Structure

Question 88 (4 of 7 Based on Passage)

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What are the different types of unemployment?

Explanation

In general sense, unemployment is a situation in which those who can and willing to work at the prevailing wage rate but do not find a job.

Different Types of Unemployment Are

  • Frictional Unemployment: It occurs when people change jobs, get laid off from their current jobs, take some time to find the right job after they finish their schooling or take time off from working for variety of other reasons.
  • Structural Unemployment: Occurs when workers skills do not match with the jobs that is available. Technological advancements are a cause of structural unemployment.
  • Seasonal Unemployment: Occurs when the industries slow or shut down for a season or make seasonal shifts in their production.
  • Cyclical Unemployment: Unemployment that rises during economic downturns and falls when the economy improves.

Question 89 (5 of 7 Based on Passage)

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What is the meaning of underemployment? In which economic sector is under employment conditions more prevalent and why?

Explanation

A condition in which everyone appears working but no one is fully employed. This is the situation of underemployment. People affected by such type of employment are not able to utilize their potential and capacity in full.

Underemployment Exist in the Primary Sector Because

  • In this sector comprises the poorest section of society in majority.
  • People engaged in this sector are illiterate or semi-literate.

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