IGCSE Development Studies: Specimen Questions with Answers 89 - 90 of 98

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Employment Structure

Question 89 (5 of 7 Based on Passage)

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What are the different types of unemployment?

Explanation

In general sense, unemployment is a situation in which those who can and willing to work at the prevailing wage rate but do not find a job.

Different Types of Unemployment Are

  • Frictional Unemployment: It occurs when people change jobs, get laid off from their current jobs, take some time to find the right job after they finish their schooling or take time off from working for variety of other reasons.
  • Structural Unemployment: Occurs when workers skills do not match with the jobs that is available. Technological advancements are a cause of structural unemployment.
  • Seasonal Unemployment: Occurs when the industries slow or shut down for a season or make seasonal shifts in their production.
  • Cyclical Unemployment: Unemployment that rises during economic downturns and falls when the economy improves.

Question 90 (6 of 7 Based on Passage)

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What is an employment structure?

Explanation

Employment structure refers to how the work is divided among three main sectors of employment:

  • Primary sector
  • Secondary sector
  • Tertiary sector

In the early stages of development countries have a high percentage of population engaged in the agriculture sector. Then as the country develops further it shifts its employment structure from primary to secondary i.e.. from agricultural to Industrial and in the final stage of development of a country a country undergoes the growth in tertiary sector i.e.. the service sector. Employment structure of countries is usually displayed through pie charts. They are the diagrams that show the percentage of each sector in a society and the percentage of each sector changes as a country՚s development level increases.