IGCSE Development Studies: Specimen Questions with Answers 87 - 88 of 98

Passage

Employment Structure

Question 87 (3 of 7 Based on Passage)

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How does employment structure changes overtime?

Explanation

Stages of Development Countries

Primary Decreases

  • For farm workers mechanization reduces and rural workers migrate to the urban area.
  • Raw materials exhaust which leads to loss in mining jobs
  • Rural population decreases due to migration and people prefer better paid and less physical activity jobs.

Secondary Increases First then Decrease

  • Initially industrialization requires large number of workforces
  • Automation replaces factory jobs
  • Movement of manufacturing industries from MEDCs to NICs where availability of land and labor is cheaper.

Tertiary Increase

  • In urban areas the service sector is large and growing.
  • With the development of a country demand for service increases like education, tourism, heath.
  • Growth of jobs in the MEDCs in the knowledge economy which based on information and knowledge processing.
  • Increase is producer services.

Question 88 (4 of 7 Based on Passage)

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“Maximum GDP is coming from tertiary sector but the share of employment is in the primary sector.” Discuss.

Explanation

“Maximum GDP is coming from tertiary sector but the share of employment is in the primary sector” because of the following reasons-

  • Less creation of jobs: This situation is because not enough jobs are created in the secondary and tertiary sectors.
  • Production is more in comparison to jobs: Industrial production of goods might increase but the number of jobs created in the industries is less in comparison to it.
  • Low employment level in the tertiary sector: In the tertiary sector production may rise but employment is less. As a result, more than half of the population on the primary sector, which contributes a lesser amount in the GDP.