IGCSE Development Studies: Specimen Questions with Answers 71 - 72 of 98

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Human Rights

Question 71 (2 of 7 Based on Passage)

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Give two characteristics of democracy.

Explanation

The characteristics of democracy are as follows:

  • Individual Liberty: Government works to secure an equal opportunity for people to develop their own abilities.
  • Majority rule with minority rights: Government is based on majority rule through the people’s elected representative, but respects the rights of minorities.

  • Free Elections: Government is based on free and open elections in which every citizen has the right to vote, every vote has equal weight, and candidates for office can freely express their views.

  • Competing Political Parties: Political parties choose candidates for office, respect the voters’ decision in elections and act as loyal opposition

Question 72 (3 of 7 Based on Passage)

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What are the roles of different institutions of government?

Explanation

Institutions are a part of the society and they govern the behavior and expectations of the individuals. Through formal and informal institutions of the government effective governance is kept informed about various economic and social activities. Effective governance is implemented through these institutions in favor of the public and the economy. Effective governance in these institutions act as a key facilitator of economic growth.

Role of Government

The role of government institutions in the development of the economy are:

  • Government institutions help to predict and maintain the prosperity of a country by the ‘creation of wealth. ‘
  • They play an important role in the political stability to create and maintain stable and hostile environment for smooth functioning of the economy.

  • They promote entrepreneurship and initiate to introduce innovation and risk taking for the betterment of the society.