IGCSE Development Studies: Specimen Questions with Answers 64 - 65 of 98

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Understand by HDI

Question 64 (7 of 7 Based on Passage)

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What is the rank of India in 2,019?

Explanation

India reached to the rank of 129 out of 189 countries in the year 2,019 Human Development Index as per the data released by UNDP. In India still inequality and deprivation continue to be at a higher level. India’s HDI improved to 0. 647 as compared to 0. 640 in 2,018. Development initiatives in India like Pradhan Mantri Jan Dhan Yojana for the purpose of financial inclusion and Ayushman Bharat for Universal health care are important in meeting all the objectives and to ensure no one is left behind.

Question 65

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What are the two problems associated with SAP?

Explanation

According to IMF and World Bank structural adjustment are important to promote more open and efficient economy which helps in improving the standard of living of the people.

Two Problems Associated with SAP Are

  • Tackling with policies of inflation: Recession and mass employment can be caused by the higher rates of interest and higher amount of taxes. Implementation of the structural adjustment programme is painful in the short run. It is important to control inflation otherwise economic condition could get worse leading to a problem in the future. If tackled efficiently structural adjustment will provide an economic stability.
  • Cut on spending of the poorest section: Structural adjustment also leads to cut on various expenditures in favor of the society like, Welfare services, health services, education services etc. This spending cut can be controlled by reduction in the budget or charging higher amount of tax from the high-income earners of the society. Recently, poverty reduction has been added to structural adjustment policy by IMF.