IGCSE Development Studies: Specimen Questions with Answers 32 - 33 of 98

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High Death Rate

Question 32 (4 of 7 Based on Passage)

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Explain the following:

How is total fertility calculated?

Explanation

Total fertility represents the sum of number of children born or are likely to be born to a woman in her lifetime under the following conditions:

  • If she is falls under the age specific fertility rate through her lifetime
  • If she survives childbirth till the end of her productive life.

It is expressed as number of children per woman. Fertility rate focusses on number of births per 1000 woman and birth rate looks at the entire population. Thus, it is the sum of age specific fertility rate of women over their reproductive span i.e.. all ages of childbearing period from 15 - 49 years of age as observed each year. Total fertility is computed by using the following formula:

Question 33 (5 of 7 Based on Passage)

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How birth rate and death rate are related to population?

Explanation

The natural increase of population rate is mainly depending on the birth rate and death rate. Birth rate refers to the number of live babies born in a year for every 1000 people in the total population. Births occur to young-adult age people. If in a country there are more young-adult in comparison to the old adult, then there will be more births in a country leading to increase in population of the country.

On the other hand, if in a country older-adults are in large number then the country will have high mortality rates. Thus, we can say that, many people who are having one or two children can still produce many births in a country. This is referred to as population momentum. The momentum of population can be lowered in a less developed country when the large number of young-adults pass the age of fertility.

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