IGCSE Development Studies: Specimen Questions with Answers 1 - 2 of 98

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Indicators Poverty in a Country

Question 1 (1 of 7 Based on Passage)

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Name any two countries with highest level of poverty and state the reason for poverty prevailing in those countries.

Explanation

“Poverty is defined as not having enough material possession or income to cover a person՚s basic personal needs, sometimes so extreme where a person lacks food, clothing, and shelter.” It is the ratio of the total number of people in each age group whose income is below the poverty line. Poverty is a cyclical trap i.e.. for people to rise above the poverty level they need to get education, proper health care facilities, and access to clean drinking water, and job opportunities to improve their financial condition.

Two countries with highest level of poverty are:

  • South Africa (26.6 %)
  • Costa Rica (20.9 %)

Reason for highest level of poverty in the world is that they have the highest inequality gap in the world where the top one percent income earners take away the 20 % of all the income. Poverty is also marked by the existence of high level of unemployment and lack of high paying jobs.

Question 2 (2 of 7 Based on Passage)

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How poverty is measured?

Explanation

Poverty is pronounced deprivation in well-being and compromises many dimensions. It includes low incomes and inability to acquire the basic goods and services necessary for survival with dignity. Poverty also encompasses low levels of health and education, poor access to clean water and sanitization, inadequate physical security, lack of voice, and insufficient capacity and opportunity to better one՚s life.

Two different types of poverty are:

  • Absolute poverty: It is a condition where household income is insufficient to afford necessities of life. (Food, shelter, clothing) .
  • Relative poverty: When households receive 50 % less income than average median incomes.

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