IGCSE Biology Paper-4: Specimen Questions with Answers 221 - 222 of 279

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Flowers from three red-flowered plants, A, B and C, of the same species were self-pollinated.

Question 221 (1 of 5 Based on Passage)

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Short Answer▾
The Seeds Were Germinated Separately and Could Grow and Produce Flowers. The Color of These Flowers is Shown in the Table
seeds from plantcolor of flowers grown from the seeds
Aall red
Bsome red and some white
Csome red and some white

The seeds were germinated separately and could grow and produce flowers. The color of these flowers is shown in the table.

Seeds were collected from plants A, B and C.

Suggest how you could make certain that self-pollination took place in the flowers of plants A, B and C.


Cover flower with plastic bag or butter paper to prevent contamination from other pollen.

Question 222 (2 of 5 Based on Passage)


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Short Answer▾

Explain what is meant by the term pollination.


The process of transfer of pollen grains, from an anther to the stigma of the same flower or of different flower is called pollination. This process of pollination occurs only in gymnosperms and angiosperms.

Pollination is facilitated by various factors like wind, water, insects, birds, and animals.

Types of Pollination

Pollination is of two types:

  • self-pollination and
  • cross pollination


It involves the transfer of pollen grains from anther to stigma of same or genetically similar flower. It occurs always in crops with bisexual flowers, e. g. wheat, barley etc.

Cross Pollination

Cross pollination involves the transfer of pollen grains from the flower of one plant to the stigma of the flower of another plant. It is also called xenogamy. It is performed with the help of external agency.

Geitonogamous Pollination

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