IGCSE Biology Paper-4: Specimen Questions with Answers 213 - 214 of 279

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Modern technology can be used to increase the yield of crops.

Question 213 (4 of 5 Based on Passage)

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Artificial selection and genetic engineering can also be used to increase crop yields. Explain the difference between these two techniques

Explanation

Artificial Selection and Genetic Engineering Can Also be Used to Increase Crop Yields
Artificial selectionGenetic engineering
Process of modifying thecharacteristics of living things in order to enhance one or more desirable traits by the selection in breeding, controlled by humans.Deliberate modification ofthe characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material.
Does not introduce foreignDNA into the genome.Introduces foreign DNAinto the genome.
Done through the selection of mating partners artificially.Done through the introduction of recombinant plasmids to the host organism.
Does not require specificequipment and trained people.An efficient way ofproducing organisms with the desired trait.

Question 214 (5 of 5 Based on Passage)

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The use of chemicals, such as fertilizers, herbicides, and pesticides, is one of the developments used.

Explain the dangers to the local environment of the overuse of fertilizers on farmland.

Explanation

Disadvantages of Using Artificial Fertilizers

  • Crops grow better, but so do weeds. Therefore, herbicide sprays are required too.
  • Better quality plants attract insects so pesticides may be needed.
  • Excess nitrogen from fertilizers gets into water supplies, causing fish to die.
  • Chemicals need to be used safely. In poorer countries in particular, farmers can damage their health by applying fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides incorrectly.
  • Fertilizers, applied without organic additions, do not improve soil structure.

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