IGCSE Biology Paper-4: Specimen Questions with Answers 185 - 188 of 279

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Passage

shows a young plant with its roots submerged in a container filled with a solution containing mineral salts and a colored dye.

Structure of Plant

Fig. shows a section of a root and Fig. shows a section of a stem.

Root and Stem

Question 185 (4 of 4 Based on Passage)

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Shade in the tissue to identify where the colored solution may be found in the section of the root, Fig. and stem, Fig.

Explanation

Root and Stem

Passage

Suggest and explain the effects on a person of a diet with:

Question 186 (1 of 2 Based on Passage)

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too much animal fat.

Explanation

Effects of Too Much Animal

  • raise cholesterol levels in the blood
  • risk for heart disease
  • person will become overweight or obese
  • risk of endometrial, breast, prostate and colorectal cancers

Question 187 (2 of 2 Based on Passage)

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too little fiber,

Explanation

Effects of Too Little Fiber

  • Constipation
  • Weight Gain
  • Rise in blood sugar
  • High Cholesterol
  • Hemorrhoids: hemorrhoids, swollen veins near the anus and lower rectum
  • Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

Question 188

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Coeliac disease is caused by a reaction to a protein called gluten. The villi become damaged causing a reduction in the absorption of nutrients.

Suggest possible effects on the body of a reduction in the absorption of nutrients.

Explanation

If Celiac Disease remains untreated

These problems could happen:

Lactose intolerance. The small intestine digests lactose, which is the sugar naturally found in milk. If your small intestine doesn՚t work right because of celiac disease, you might become lactose intolerant.

Vitamin and mineral deficiencies. When the small intestine is damaged, it can՚t absorb vitamins and minerals. People with untreated celiac disease often are low in these:

  • Iron
  • Calcium
  • Fiber
  • Zinc
  • Magnesium
  • Folate
  • Niacin
  • Riboflavin
  • Vitamin B-12
  • Vitamin D

Osteopenia and osteoporosis. When your body lacks calcium, your bones can become brittle. If your small intestine doesn՚t heal and you continue to miss out on it, you might develop osteopenia (low bone density) and then osteoporosis, where your bones are weaker.

Iron deficiency anemia. Your body needs iron to make red blood cells, which carry oxygen around the body. If you don՚t have enough iron and your blood doesn՚t have enough oxygen, this can make you tired and short of breath.

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