IGCSE Biology Paper-4: Specimen Questions with Answers 169 - 170 of 279

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Question 169


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Describe the treatment for human patients with Type 1 diabetes.


Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes Includes

  • Taking insulin
  • Carbohydrate, fat, and protein counting
  • Frequent blood sugar monitoring
  • Eating healthy foods
  • Exercising regularly and maintaining a healthy weight

Question 170


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Define the term excretion.


Excretion is the removal of metabolic waste (mainly) from the body.

Faecal matter is undigested waste, and not metabolic waste, so it is not considered as excretory product.

The excretory wastes are of two types:

Non-Nitrogenous Wastes

  • Carbon dioxide: It is removed through lungs (accessory excretory structure) .
  • Excess water and excess salts are removed through kidney (primary excretory structure) .

Nitrogenous Wastes

Such wastes are produced from the metabolism of proteins and nucleic acids.


The animals in which ammonia is the major excretory product are called Ammonotelics.


  • The animals in which urea is the major excretory product are called Ureotelics.
  • Urea is less toxic and requires less water for elimination.

Uric Acid

  • The animals in which uric acid is the major excretory product are called Uricotelics.
  • Uric acid is least soluble in water and can be stored as a solid waste.

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