IGCSE Biology Paper-4: Specimen Questions with Answers 1 - 2 of 279

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Question 1

Write in Brief One Liner▾

What four steps are mainly used in gene cloning?



Gene cloning is also called as molecular cloning which is used to assemble recombinant DNA molecule and their direct replication in the host organism.

Major steps, which are used for gene cloning are-

Shows the Given Steps
1. Generation of DNA Fragments ⇾ 2. Joining to a vector ⇾ 3. Introduction into a host cell for amplification ⇾ 4. Selection of required sequence
Image Shows Cloning of DNA Fragments

Question 2

Write in Brief One Liner▾

Diagram shows a cross section of plant cell. Fill the all organelles in given diagram. In addition, write their functions.

Diagram Shows a Cross Section of Plant Cell


Shows a Cross Section of Plant Cell
Shows the Cell Organelle
Cell organelleFunctions
Cell wallSupport and protection
Cell membraneSupport, protection and controls movement of materials in/out of cell
NucleusControls cell activities
CytoplasmProtects cell organelles


Carries materials through cell
ribosomeProduces proteins
MitochondriaBreaks down sugar molecules into energy
VacuoleStore food, water, waste
LysosomeDigests old cell parts
chloroplastUses energy from sun to make food for the plant (photosynthesis)