IGCSE Biology Paper-3: Specimen Questions with Answers 287 - 288 of 358

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Passage

Improved food production has contributed to the increase in the human population.

Question 287 (2 of 4 Based on Passage)

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Short Answer▾

State and explain two ways in which modern technology has resulted in increased food production.

Explanation

  • Development and use of chemical fertilizers on farm land to boots levels of nutrients in the soil, increasing crop yields.
  • Development and use of pesticides such as insecticides and fungicides to kill pests that feed on it and damage crops thus increase crop yields.
  • Development and use of herbicides to kill weeds that compete with crops for nutrients, light, water, and space thus increase crop yields.

Question 288 (3 of 4 Based on Passage)

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One Liner▾

As the human population has increased, forests have been cleared for farming.

Outline the effects of deforestation on the environment.

Explanation

  • Soil Erosion: it՚s easy to think of soil as compact and unmoving, but that isn՚t always accurate. Soil can be surprisingly loose, and it doesn՚t always stay in the same place. It can be washed away by rain or blown away by wind if it isn՚t properly anchored. What anchors the soil in place? The roots of plants, mostly.
  • Water Cycle Disruption: The water cycle is the process by which all water on earth is distributed. Water from Earth՚s oceans as well as from the surface of bodies of fresh water evaporates and condenses into clouds. Trees and other plants also extract groundwater and release that water into the atmosphere during photosynthesis.
  • Greenhouse Gas Emissions: Greenhouse gases such as methane and carbon dioxide are gases that trap heat in Earth՚s atmosphere, leading to global climate change. Fortunately, in addition to releasing oxygen and water into the atmosphere, trees also absorb carbon dioxide. While trees are still living, they function as efficient greenhouse gas filters.
  • Biodiversity Losses: Living things have mastered the art of adapting to new environments. This is how life on Earth manages to thrive from the Arctic tundra to burning hot deserts. However, it takes time for life to adapt. Deforestation alters land too quickly for plants and animals to cope, which means that many of them do not survive.

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