IGCSE Biology Paper-3: Specimen Questions with Answers 272 - 273 of 358

Passage

The boxes on the left contain the names of parts of the body that produce hormones.

The boxes in the center contain the names of hormones.

The boxes on the right contain functions of these hormones.

Rate of Breathing

Question 272 (1 of 4 Based on Passage)

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Short Answer▾

State how hormones are transported around the body.

Explanation

Endocrine hormone is secreted into the blood and carried by blood and tissue fluids to the cells they act upon, while exocrine hormones are secreted into a duct, and then into the bloodstream. Exocrine hormones are transferred from cell to cell by diffusion (paracrine signaling) .

Question 273 (2 of 4 Based on Passage)

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Where does thyroid gland located in our body and what is the function of it?

Explanation

Thyroid Gland

  • It is single and bilobed gland present on either side of trachea below larynx the 2-lobes remain connected by a non-glandular tissue called Isthmus.
  • It is endodermal in origin
  • It is the largest endocrine gland in the body (weighing ~35 gm) .

Calcitonin (Or Thyrocalcitonin)

  • It is proteinaceous and non-iodinized hormone (Iodine absent) .
  • It is secreted from C (clear) – cells or Parafollicular cells (outside thyroid follicles)
  • It is hypocalcimic factor and decreases the amount of Ca2 + in the blood.
  • It is angonistic to PTH (Para-thyroid hormone) .

Thyroxine (T4)

  • It is Tetra-ido-thyronine and is secreted from the cells of thyroid follicles. T4 with T3 are stored as a colloidal material in the follicles.
  • Thyroxine regulates basic metabolic rate (BMR) - stimulating heartbeat, breathing rate etc.
  • It causes demineralization of bones in adults (by stimulating osteoclasts - the bone eating cells) .
  • It causes hyperglycemia by stimulating glycogenolysis and Gluconeogenesis.
  • It causes nervous excitation also.
Stimulating Heartbeat

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