IGCSE Biology Paper-3: Specimen Questions with Answers 253 - 254 of 358


Coat color in cattle is inherited in a very similar way to blood groups in humans. The gene for coat color has two codominant alleles:

CB which is the allele for brown coat

CW which is the allele for white coat.

Table shows the genotypes and phenotypes of different coat colors seen in a herd of cattle.

The Genotypes and Phenotypes of Different Coat Colors Seen in a Herd of Cattle

Question 253 (1 of 5 Based on Passage)


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Short Answer▾

Milk yield can also be increased by injecting cows with the hormone bovine somatotropin (BST) .

Explain why there may be concerns about the use of this hormone to increase milk yield.


Concerns About the Misuse of Hormone to Increase Milk Yield

  • already an overproduction of milk in the market
  • consumer is concerned about hormones in the milk
  • may cause allergy in humans
  • long term use ongoing cost to farmers
  • not suitable to animal welfare
  • side effects for both humans as well as cattle

Question 254 (2 of 5 Based on Passage)


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Short Answer▾

A farmer has a herd of cows that produce milk. The farmer wants to improve the milk yield of the herd by using artificial selection (selective breeding) . The farmer buys semen (fluid containing sperm) to inseminate the cows artificially.

(i) Describe how the farmer could improve the milk yield of the cows using artificial selection.


Artificial selection is the process by which humans use animal breeding to selectively develop phenotypic traits (characteristics) by choosing which typically animal males and females will sexually reproduce and have offspring together.

Steps of Artificial Selection

  • Breeder decide trait or characteristic of interest.
  • Breed the choices together (artificial insemination used)
  • Choose offspring with ideal characteristics to mate
  • Repeat for many generations
  • The allelic frequency for the characteristic increases.
  • Decide what type of selection is occurring in the population
  • Selective, Directional, Disruptive

In order to achieve the cow yielding higher milk directional selection is used as it pushes mean of the frequency of the selected individual in one direction.

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