IGCSE Biology Paper-3: Specimen Questions with Answers 251 - 252 of 358

Passage

shows a diagram of the heart.

Structure of Photosynthesis

Question 251 (4 of 4 Based on Passage)

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State one function of the liver and one function of the small intestine.

Function of the liver …

Function of the small intestine …

Explanation

Function of Liver

Production of bile, which helps carry away waste and break down fats in the small intestine during digestion. Production of certain proteins for blood plasma. Production of cholesterol and special proteins to help carry fats through the body.

Function of Small Intestine

The small intestine is chiefly involved in the digestion and absorption of nutrients. It receives pancreatic secretions and bile through the hepatopancreatic duct which aid with its functions.

Question 252

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HIV is an example of a sexually transmitted disease.

(i) Define the term sexually transmitted disease.

(ii) State the name of the disease that HIV can lead to.

(iii) Describe one other way that HIV can be transmitted.

Explanation

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDS)

  • Diseases or infections which are transmitted through sexual intercourse are collectively called sexually transmitted diseases (STD) . Also called venereal diseases (VD) or reproductive tract infections (RTI) . Gonorrhoea, syphilis, genital herpes, chlamydiasis, genital warts, trichomoniasis, hepatitis-B, HIV leading to AIDS are some of the common STDs. Among these, HIV infection is most dangerous.
  • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) causes an infection that damages the immune system. The immune system is the part of the body that fights infection and disease. If untreated, HIV infection will lead to a serious disease called Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) .

HIV can only be spread through specific activities:

  • Having vaginal sex with someone who has HIV.
  • Receiving blood transfusions, blood products, or organ/tissue transplants that are contaminated with HIV.
  • Getting stuck with an HIV-contaminated needle.
  • From mother to child during pregnancy, birth, or breastfeeding.
  • Contact between broken skin, wounds, or mucous membranes and HIV-infected blood or blood-contaminated body fluids.
  • Deep, open-mouth kissing if both partners have sores or bleeding gums and blood from the HIV-positive partner gets into the bloodstream of the HIV-negative partner HIV is not spread through saliva.
  • Eating food that has been pre-chewed by a person with HIV.

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