IGCSE Biology Paper-3: Specimen Questions with Answers 233 - 233 of 358

Passage

shows part of the human gas exchange system.

Structure of Organ P

Question 233 (3 of 4 Based on Passage)

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Describe the harmful effects of tobacco smoke on the body.

Explanation

Damaging Components of Tobacco Smoke Include

  • Tar: is the word for the solid particles suspended in tobacco smoke. The particles contain chemicals, including cancer-causing substances (carcinogens) . Tar is sticky and brown, and stains teeth, fingernails, and lung tissue
  • carbon monoxide: is a poisonous gas. It is odorless and colorless and, in large doses, quickly causes death because it takes the place of oxygen in the blood. In people who smoke, the carbon monoxide in their blood makes it harder for oxygen to get to their organs and muscles
  • oxidizing chemicals: are highly reactive chemicals that can damage the heart muscles and blood vessels of people who smoke. They react with cholesterol, leading to the build-up of fatty material on artery walls. Their actions lead to heart disease, stroke, and blood vessel disease
  • metals: tobacco smoke contains several metals that cause cancer, including arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, and nickel
  • radioactive compounds: tobacco smoke contains radioactive compounds that are known to be carcinogenic.

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