IGCSE Biology Paper-3: Specimen Questions with Answers 352 - 353 of 358

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The blood of a fetus does not mix with the blood of its mother, but substances are exchanged across the placenta.

Question 352 (2 of 4 Based on Passage)


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Mothers may be encouraged to breast-feed their newborn babies. The first milk that a mother secretes is called colostrum and contains antibodies.

Name the cells that produce antibodies.


Immunity in newborn babies is only temporary and starts to decrease after the first few weeks or months. Premature babies are at higher risk of developing an illness because their immune systems aren՚t as strong and they haven՚t had as many antibodies passed to them. As newborn immunity is only temporary, it՚s important to begin childhood immunizations when baby is 2 months old. This applies to babies who are either premature or full-term.

Question 353 (3 of 4 Based on Passage)


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During pregnancy, women are often given dietary advice.

Explain why pregnant women require more iron and vitamin D in their diet.


vitamin D.



  • Pregnant women body uses iron to make extra blood (hemoglobin) for her and for baby during pregnancy. Iron also helps to move oxygen from lungs to the rest of women body and towards developing baby.
  • Getting enough iron can prevent a condition of too few red blood cells that can make mother feel tired, called iron deficiency anemia. Having anemia can cause baby to be born too small or too early.


Not consuming enough calcium can lead to:

  • High blood pressure during pregnancy
  • Premature birth
  • Low birth weight
  • Numbness and tingling in the fingers
  • Slow growth of the baby
  • The baby not getting enough calcium in the bones
  • Heart problems
  • Muscle and leg cramps
  • A poor appetite
  • In rare cases, increased risk of bone fractures.

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