IGCSE Biology Paper-3: Specimen Questions with Answers 351 - 352 of 358

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Passage

The blood of a fetus does not mix with the blood of its mother, but substances are exchanged across the placenta.

Question 351 (1 of 4 Based on Passage)

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During pregnancy, women are often given dietary advice.

Explain why pregnant women require more iron and vitamin D in their diet.

iron

vitamin D.

Explanation

Iron

  • Pregnant women body uses iron to make extra blood (hemoglobin) for her and for baby during pregnancy. Iron also helps to move oxygen from lungs to the rest of women body and towards developing baby.
  • Getting enough iron can prevent a condition of too few red blood cells that can make mother feel tired, called iron deficiency anemia. Having anemia can cause baby to be born too small or too early.

Calcium

Not consuming enough calcium can lead to:

  • High blood pressure during pregnancy
  • Premature birth
  • Low birth weight
  • Numbness and tingling in the fingers
  • Slow growth of the baby
  • The baby not getting enough calcium in the bones
  • Heart problems
  • Muscle and leg cramps
  • A poor appetite
  • In rare cases, increased risk of bone fractures.

Question 352 (2 of 4 Based on Passage)

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Mothers may be encouraged to breast-feed their newborn babies. The first milk that a mother secretes is called colostrum and contains antibodies.

Some mothers bottle-feed their newborn babies with formula milk rather than breast-feed.

Describe four advantages of breast-feeding, other than providing antibodies.

Explanation

Advantages of Breastfeeding for the Baby

  • Superior nutrition
  • There is an increased resistance to infections, and therefore fewer incidents of illness and hospitalization
  • Decreased risk of allergies and lactose intolerance
  • Breast milk is sterile
  • Baby experiences less nappy rash and thrush
  • Baby is less likely to develop allergies
  • Baby experiences fewer stomach upsets and constipation
  • Breastfed infants tend to have fewer cavities
  • Breastfeeding promotes the proper development of baby՚s jaw and teeth.
  • Breastfed infants tend to have higher IQs due to good brain development early in life
  • Babies benefit emotionally, because they are held more
  • Breastfeeding promotes mother-baby bonding
  • In the long term, breastfed babies have a decreased risk of malnutrition, obesity and heart disease compared to formula fed babies.

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