IGCSE Biology Paper-3: Specimen Questions with Answers 354 - 355 of 358

Passage

The blood of a fetus does not mix with the blood of its mother, but substances are exchanged across the placenta.

Question 354 (4 of 4 Based on Passage)

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Mothers may be encouraged to breast-feed their newborn babies. The first milk that a mother secretes is called colostrum and contains antibodies.

Name the cells that produce antibodies.

Explanation

Immunity in newborn babies is only temporary and starts to decrease after the first few weeks or months. Premature babies are at higher risk of developing an illness because their immune systems aren՚t as strong and they haven՚t had as many antibodies passed to them. As newborn immunity is only temporary, it՚s important to begin childhood immunizations when baby is 2 months old. This applies to babies who are either premature or full-term.

Passage

A balanced diet contains seven different groups of substances.

Three of these groups of substances are fats, fiber (roughage) and vitamins.

Question 355 (1 of 2 Based on Passage)

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State the names of four other groups of substances in a balanced diet.

Explanation

There are seven essential factors for a balanced diet: carbs, protein, fat, fiber, vitamins, minerals, and water.

There Are Seven Essential Factors for a Balanced Diet: Carbs, Protein, Fat, Fiber, Vitamins, Minerals, and Water
S. No.Nutrient% of daily caloriesFunctionSource
1Carbs45 – 55 %EnergyGrains (refined & unrefined) : wheat, maize, corn, millet, oats, rice, flour, pasta, noodles; potatoes; sweet potatoes, yam. Fruit (sugar) .
2Protein10 – 35 %Tissue growth and maintenanceMeat, fish, nuts, eggs, soya, beans, and pulses.
3Fat20 – 35 % from fatEnergy, energy storage, hormone productionNuts, seeds, plant oils, dairy products (milk, cheese) .
4FiberIncluded in carbs.Regulates blood sugar levels, bowel function and bowel health.Peas, beans, vegetables, fruit, oats, whole grains, brown rice, nuts, seeds.
5Vitamins & mineralstraceMetabolism regulation, aiding cell growth, other biochemical functionsSpecific to each vitamin/mineral. A range of vegetables, lean meat, nuts and seeds will cover most people՚s needs.
6Water0Maintaining hydrationDrinking water, other beverages. About 20 % of water intake comes from food.

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