IGCSE Biology Paper-3: Specimen Questions with Answers 347 - 348 of 358


Excretion is the process of removing waste products of metabolism from the body.

Question 347 (4 of 7 Based on Passage)

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Dialysis can be used to treat people whose kidneys do not function properly.

Fig. shows dialysis treatment.

Movement of Substance

Use Fig. to describe the process of dialysis and explain changes that occur in a person՚s blood.


It is used to remove urea and creatinine. In such patients the blood is drained out through an artery into a ‘dialyzing unit’ after adding heparin, an anticoagulant. The dialyzing unit contains a coiled cellophane tube, surrounded by dialyzing fluid. This fluid has same composition as plasma except the nitrogenous wastes. The nitrogenous wastes from the blood pass through cellophane membrane into the dialyzing fluid and the blood is cleared of waste substances. The cleared blood, after addition of anti-heparin, is pumped back into the body through a vein.

Question 348 (5 of 7 Based on Passage)


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The liver is another excretory organ of the body. The liver breaks down hormones and drugs, such as alcohol.

Describe two effects on the body of long-term, excessive consumption of alcohol.


Effects of Long-Term Alcohol Consumption Include

  • fatty liver (steatosis)
  • inflammation of the liver (hepatitis)
  • acute alcoholic hepatitis
  • scarring of the liver (cirrhosis)
  • liver failure and death

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