IGCSE Biology Paper-3: Specimen Questions with Answers 350 - 351 of 358

Passage

Excretion is the process of removing waste products of metabolism from the body.

Question 350 (7 of 7 Based on Passage)

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The liver is another excretory organ of the body. The liver breaks down hormones and drugs, such as alcohol.

Describe two effects on the body of long-term, excessive consumption of alcohol.

Explanation

Effects of Long-Term Alcohol Consumption Include

  • fatty liver (steatosis)
  • inflammation of the liver (hepatitis)
  • acute alcoholic hepatitis
  • scarring of the liver (cirrhosis)
  • liver failure and death

Passage

The blood of a fetus does not mix with the blood of its mother, but substances are exchanged across the placenta.

Question 351 (1 of 4 Based on Passage)

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During pregnancy, women are often given dietary advice.

Explain why pregnant women require more iron and vitamin D in their diet.

iron

vitamin D.

Explanation

Iron

  • Pregnant women body uses iron to make extra blood (hemoglobin) for her and for baby during pregnancy. Iron also helps to move oxygen from lungs to the rest of women body and towards developing baby.
  • Getting enough iron can prevent a condition of too few red blood cells that can make mother feel tired, called iron deficiency anemia. Having anemia can cause baby to be born too small or too early.

Calcium

Not consuming enough calcium can lead to:

  • High blood pressure during pregnancy
  • Premature birth
  • Low birth weight
  • Numbness and tingling in the fingers
  • Slow growth of the baby
  • The baby not getting enough calcium in the bones
  • Heart problems
  • Muscle and leg cramps
  • A poor appetite
  • In rare cases, increased risk of bone fractures.

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