IGCSE Biology Paper-3: Specimen Questions with Answers 351 - 351 of 358


The blood of a fetus does not mix with the blood of its mother, but substances are exchanged across the placenta.

Question 351 (1 of 4 Based on Passage)


Write in Short

Short Answer▾

Mothers may be encouraged to breast-feed their newborn babies. The first milk that a mother secretes is called colostrum and contains antibodies.

Some mothers bottle-feed their newborn babies with formula milk rather than breast-feed.

Describe four advantages of breast-feeding, other than providing antibodies.


Advantages of Breastfeeding for the Baby

  • Superior nutrition
  • There is an increased resistance to infections, and therefore fewer incidents of illness and hospitalization
  • Decreased risk of allergies and lactose intolerance
  • Breast milk is sterile
  • Baby experiences less nappy rash and thrush
  • Baby is less likely to develop allergies
  • Baby experiences fewer stomach upsets and constipation
  • Breastfed infants tend to have fewer cavities
  • Breastfeeding promotes the proper development of baby՚s jaw and teeth.
  • Breastfed infants tend to have higher IQs due to good brain development early in life
  • Babies benefit emotionally, because they are held more
  • Breastfeeding promotes mother-baby bonding
  • In the long term, breastfed babies have a decreased risk of malnutrition, obesity and heart disease compared to formula fed babies.