IGCSE Biology Paper-2: Specimen Questions with Answers 119 - 120 of 203

Question 119

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Question

MCQ▾

Given diagram is showing human excretory system.

Given diagram is showing human excretory system

Given Diagram is Showing Human Excretory System

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What is the name of structure X?

Choices

Choice (4)
a.Adrenal gland
b.Ovary
c.Thyroid gland
d.Parathyroid gland

Answer

a.

Explanation

  • Adrenal glands, also known as suprarenal glands, are small, triangular-shaped glands located on top of both kidneys. Adrenal glands produce hormones that help regulate your metabolism, immune system, blood pressure, response to stress and other essential functions. Adrenal glands are composed of two parts — the cortex and the medulla — which are each responsible for producing different hormones. When adrenal glands do not produce enough hormones, this can lead to adrenal insufficiency (Addison’s disease).
  • Adrenal glands may develop nodules that can be benign or malignant, which can potentially produce excessive amounts of certain hormones leading to various health issues.
Given diagram is showing human excretory system

Given Diagram is Showing Human Excretory System

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Question 120

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Question

MCQ▾

Which row shows the effects of increased adrenaline release?

Choices

Choice (4)
a.Pupil-narrow, pulse rate-decreases, breathing rate- decreases
b.Pupil-widens, pulse rate-increases, breathing rate-decreases
c.Pupil-narrow, pulse rate-increases, breathing rate- decreases
d.Pupil-widens, pulse rate-increases, breathing rate- increases

Answer

d.

Explanation

Adrenaline (epinephrine) -

  • It is commonly called as ‘emergency hormone’ or 3F – hormone (For fear, fight, & flight).
  • Its secretion is regulated by SNS, and not by pituitary as in case of adrenal cortex.
  • It stimulates sweating, heartbeat and breathing rate. It causes the dilation of coronary artery (supplying blood to the heart muscles), bronchioles (for increasing inspiratory volume) and pupil (for better vision)
  • It is hyperglycemic, i. e. increases the amount of glucose in blood.
  • It increases blood supply to brain and skeletal muscles also.
  • It also stimulates erythropoiesis (production of RBCs).
  • It also causes alertness and Piloerection (goose flesh), heartbeat and breathing rate etc.
  • It promotes blood clotting for preventing excessive loss of the blood during injury/emergency.
  • It inhibits the functions related to the alimentary canal, e. g. it reduces the secretion of saliva, gastric juice, bile juice, pancreatic juice, and intestinal juice. It also slows peristalsis and inhibits food absorption.