A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 243 - 245 of 299

Question 243

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Define operant and respondent behavior (Marks 2)

Explanation

Respondent behavior- Responses made to or elicited by specific environment stimuli

Operant behavior-Behavior emitted spontaneously or voluntarily that operates on the environment to change it

Question 244

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Define Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome (Marks 2)

Explanation

Vasovagal syncope- Fainting because of low blood pressure in the head and brain

Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome

Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome

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Question 245

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“Psychoanalysis s always the starting point”- Erikson publicly defined himself as loyal Freudian, even as he separated substantially from orthodox psychoanalytic theory-In what ways does Erikson extended Freud’s theory in three ways- Explain (Marks 4)

Explanation

Erikson extended Freud’s theory in three ways:

  • He elaborated on Freud’s stage of development. Freud emphasized childhood and proposed the personality is shaped approximately at the age of 5 but Erikson suggested that personality continues to develop in a succession of eight stages over the entire life span
  • Erikson placed greater emphasis on the ego than on the id. In Erikson’s view, ego is the independent part of the personality
  • Erikson recognized the impact on personality of cultural and historical forces. He argued that we are not governed entirely by the innate biological factors at work in childhood. Although they are important, they do not provide the complete explanation for personality