A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 240 - 242 of 299

Question number: 240


One Liner Question▾

Write in Brief

This school of psychology was founded in Germany about 1912 by Max Wertheimer- List out the other two colleagues of Wertheimer who founded this school of psychology. Explain this school (Marks 4)


Gestalt school of psychology was founded in Germany about 1912 by Max Wertheimer and his Colleagues Kurt Koffka and Wolfgang Kohler

Gestalt school of psychology

Gestalt School of Psychology

Question number: 241


One Liner Question▾

Write in Brief

List out the symptoms of Vascular Neurocognitive disorder (4 Marks)


Permanent deterioration due to blocked or damaged blood vessels in the brain, decline in speed of information processing and executive functioning and may also include problems with walking and weakening of limbs

Vascular Neurocognitive disorder

Vascular Neurocognitive Disorder

Question number: 242


Short Answer Question▾

Write in Short

On the playground, 6-year old Sam pushes little Samantha off her tricycle and rides away on it.

How might a psychologist with a behavioral, biological, cognitive, developmental, humanistic, psychoanalytic and social perspective try to understand these two examples? (Marks 10)


  • Sam pushed Samantha off her tricycle, a psychologist with a behavioral perspective answer might answer that Sam learned to behave this way because the behavior paid off in the past. In other words, he learned to act aggressively in certain situations because he was rewarded for such behaviors in the past.

  • Psychologists with the biological perspective try to relate behavior to functions of the body- the nervous and glandular systems in particular. Is there anything biological about little Sam which might have caused him to behave aggressively towards Samantha? Males are generally more aggressive than females; this may be related to male-female hormonal differences, but the evidence in humans on this point is mixed. Of course, even if there is a hormonal basis for male aggressiveness in general, this does not explain why Sam acted more aggressively than others little boys. Perhaps other perspectives are needed to provide a more satisfactory account of Sam’s aggressiveness.

  • Cognitive oriented psychologist would try to explain Sam’s behavior in terms of his perception of Samantha as a weak little girl who can be bullied. Alternatively, Sam may have perceived other little boys getting away with such aggression and may be modeling his behavior on their example. This is an example of Albert Bandura’s Social learning theory.

  • Social psychologists attempt to get at the causes of the behavior by obtaining more information about the participants and the setting that is Sam, Samantha and other students in the playground. Social psychologists are alert to the joint contributions two participants make to any interaction.

  • Developmental perspective is concerned with the characteristic changes that occur in people as they mature-changes in the way they think. For example Sam’s playground behavior might be seen partly as the result of Cognitive egocentrism that is, his limited ability to think about how things look or feel to others. As, he grows older, Sam would be better and better able to put himself in the place of others, consider their feelings and behave appropriately.

  • Humanistic perspective emphasizes the person’s sense of self. From this viewpoint, Sam’s behavior might been seen as a part of his quest for personal competence, achievement and self-esteem

  • Psychoanalytic perspective focuses on the role of feelings and impulses which are thought to be unconscious. A key

  • A key psychodynamic idea is that when these impulses are unacceptable, or when they makes us anxious, we use defense mechanisms. Here Sam expressed the defense mechanism of Displacement. When we are angry at someone who is too powerful or frightening to be openly angry at, we displace our anger-deflect it onto someone who is weaker. This is what happened with little Sam.