A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 229 - 230 of 299

Question number: 229

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List out the some common terms used by Ethnographies (Mark 8)

Explanation

  • Symbols- Refer to any tradition or material artefact of a particular culture such as art, clothing technology and rituals. The ethnographer tries to understand the cultural connotations behind the symbols of a particular culture

  • Cultural patterning- Refers to the study of cultural patterns formed through relationships between two or more than two variables

  • Tacit knowledge- Refers to those cultural beliefs which are firm in nature, deeply embedded in the culture that is rarely needed to be discussed by the members in an explicit way.

  • Situational reduction- Refers to the belief of ethnographies that social structures and social dynamism are the result of several social situations

Image of the Ethnographies

Image of the Ethnographies

Question number: 230

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Explain Schedules of reinforcement with an example (Marks 10)

Explanation

Reinforcing schedules-Patterns or rates of providing or withholding Reinforcer and they are as follows

  • Fixed-interval schedule- Reinforcer is presented following the first response that occurs after fixed time interval has elapsed. The interval might be 1minute, 3minutes or any other fixed period of time. The timing of the reinforcement has nothing to do with the number of responses. Example a job in which your salary is paid once a week or once a month operates on the fixed-interval schedule

  • Fixed-ratio schedule- Reinforcer are given only after the organism has made a specified number of responses.

  • Example a job in which your pay is determined by piece-rate basis. Income depends on the number of products sold

  • Variable-interval schedule- Reinforcers are presented on a variable basis, the Reinforcer might appear after 2 hours in the first instance, after 1 hour 30 minutes and after 2 hours 15 minutes the third time. Example a person who spends the day fishing might be rewarded, if at all, on a variable interval basis. The reinforcement schedule is determined by random appearance of fish nibbling at the bait

  • Variable-ratio schedule- It is based on average number of responses between Reinforcer, but there is a great variability around that average. Example slot machines, roulette wheels, horse races and state lottery games pay on a variable- ratio reinforcement schedule