A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 229 - 230 of 299

Question 229

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List out the some common terms used by Ethnographies (Mark 8)

Explanation

  • Symbols- Refer to any tradition or material artefact of a particular culture such as art, clothing technology and rituals. The ethnographer tries to understand the cultural connotations behind the symbols of a particular culture
  • Cultural patterning- Refers to the study of cultural patterns formed through relationships between two or more than two variables
  • Tacit knowledge- Refers to those cultural beliefs which are firm in nature, deeply embedded in the culture that is rarely needed to be discussed by the members in an explicit way.
  • Situational reduction- Refers to the belief of ethnographies that social structures and social dynamism are the result of several social situations
The Ethnographies

Question 230

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Explain Schedules of reinforcement with an example (Marks 10)

Explanation

Reinforcing schedules-Patterns or rates of providing or withholding Reinforcer and they are as follows

  • Fixed-interval schedule- Reinforcer is presented following the first response that occurs after fixed time interval has elapsed. The interval might be 1minute, 3 minutes or any other fixed period of time. The timing of the reinforcement has nothing to do with the number of responses. Example a job in which your salary is paid once a week or once a month operates on the fixed-interval schedule
  • Fixed-ratio schedule- Reinforcer are given only after the organism has made a specified number of responses.
  • Example a job in which your pay is determined by piece-rate basis. Income depends on the number of products sold
  • Variable-interval schedule- Reinforcers are presented on a variable basis, the Reinforcer might appear after 2 hours in the first instance, after 1 hour 30 minutes and after 2 hours 15 minutes the third time. Example a person who spends the day fishing might be rewarded, if at all, on a variable interval basis. The reinforcement schedule is determined by random appearance of fish nibbling at the bait
  • Variable-ratio schedule- It is based on average number of responses between Reinforcer, but there is a great variability around that average. Example slot machines, roulette wheels, horse races and state lottery games pay on a variable- ratio reinforcement schedule

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