A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 220 - 222 of 299

Question number: 220

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“Portion size effect”- A matter of anchoring and inadequate adjustment- Explain

(Marks 5)

Explanation

Portion size effect- The tendency to eat more when a larger portion of food is received than a smaller portion is really a good example of anchoring and inadequate adjustment

The Portion size effect

The Portion Size Effect

Question number: 221

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Define Parkinson disease (Marks 3)

Explanation

Parkinson disease is a degenerative brain disorder that affects about 1 in every 1000 people worldwide followed by

  • Stooped posture

  • Slow body movements (Bradykinesia)

  • Tremors

  • Jerkiness in walking

  • Voice is also affected, affected individuals speak in a soft monotone

  • Changes in motor movements are the result of damage to dopamine pathways, because dopamine is involved in complex movement, a reduction in this neurotransmitter makes affected individuals increasingly unable to control their muscle movements, which leads to tremors and muscle weakness.

  • Lewy bodies are also present in the brains of affected persons

Question number: 222

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Explain Albert Ellis on shame attacking exercises (Marks 5)

Explanation

The rationale underlying shame-attacking exercises is that emotional disturbance related to the self is often characterized by feelings of shame, guilt, anxiety and depression

  • Ellis developed exrcisesto help people reduce shame and anxiety over behaving in certain ways

  • Ellis asserts that we can stubbornly refuse to feel ashamed by telling ourselves that it is not catastrophic if someone thinks we are foolish

  • Clients may accept a homework assignment to take the risk of doing something that they are ordinarily afraid to do because what others might think

  • For example clients may wear “loud” clothes designed to attract attention, sing loudly, and ask a silly question at a lecture.

  • By carrying out these assignments, clients are likely to find out that other people are not really interested in their behavior

Albert Ellis on shame attacking exercises

Albert Ellis on Shame Attacking Exercises