A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 220 - 222 of 299

Question 220


Write in Brief

One Liner▾

“Portion size effect”- A matter of anchoring and inadequate adjustment- Explain

(Marks 5)


Portion size effect- The tendency to eat more when a larger portion of food is received than a smaller portion is really a good example of anchoring and inadequate adjustment

The Portion Size Effect

Question 221


Write in Short

Short Answer▾

Define Parkinson disease (Marks 3)


Parkinson disease is a degenerative brain disorder that affects about 1 in every 1,000 people worldwide followed by

  • Stooped posture
  • Slow body movements (Bradykinesia)

  • Tremors

  • Jerkiness in walking

  • Voice is also affected, affected individuals speak in a soft monotone

  • Changes in motor movements are the result of damage to dopamine pathways, because dopamine is involved in complex movement, a reduction in this neurotransmitter makes affected individuals increasingly unable to control their muscle movements, which leads to tremors and muscle weakness.

  • Lewy bodies are also present in the brains of affected persons

Question 222


Write in Short

Short Answer▾

Explain Albert Ellis on shame attacking exercises (Marks 5)


The rationale underlying shame-attacking exercises is that emotional disturbance related to the self is often characterized by feelings of shame, guilt, anxiety and depression

  • Ellis developed exrcisesto help people reduce shame and anxiety over behaving in certain ways
  • Ellis asserts that we can stubbornly refuse to feel ashamed by telling ourselves that it is not catastrophic if someone thinks we are foolish

  • Clients may accept a homework assignment to take the risk of doing something that they are ordinarily afraid to do because what others might think

  • For example clients may wear “loud” clothes designed to attract attention, sing loudly, and ask a silly question at a lecture.

  • By carrying out these assignments, clients are likely to find out that other people are not really interested in their behavior

Albert Ellis on Shame Attacking Exercises