A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 220 - 222 of 299

Question 220

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“Portion size effect” - A matter of anchoring and inadequate adjustment- Explain

(Marks 5)

Explanation

Portion size effect- The tendency to eat more when a larger portion of food is received than a smaller portion is really a good example of anchoring and inadequate adjustment

The Portion Size Effect

Question 221

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Define Parkinson disease (Marks 3)

Explanation

Parkinson disease is a degenerative brain disorder that affects about 1 in every 1000 people worldwide followed by

  • Stooped posture
  • Slow body movements (Bradykinesia)
  • Tremors
  • Jerkiness in walking
  • Voice is also affected, affected individuals speak in a soft monotone
  • Changes in motor movements are the result of damage to dopamine pathways, because dopamine is involved in complex movement, a reduction in this neurotransmitter makes affected individuals increasingly unable to control their muscle movements, which leads to tremors and muscle weakness.
  • Lewy bodies are also present in the brains of affected persons

Question 222

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Explain Albert Ellis on shame attacking exercises (Marks 5)

Explanation

The rationale underlying shame-attacking exercises is that emotional disturbance related to the self is often characterized by feelings of shame, guilt, anxiety and depression

  • Ellis developed exrcisesto help people reduce shame and anxiety over behaving in certain ways
  • Ellis asserts that we can stubbornly refuse to feel ashamed by telling ourselves that it is not catastrophic if someone thinks we are foolish
  • Clients may accept a homework assignment to take the risk of doing something that they are ordinarily afraid to do because what others might think
  • For example clients may wear “loud” clothes designed to attract attention, sing loudly, and ask a silly question at a lecture.
  • By carrying out these assignments, clients are likely to find out that other people are not really interested in their behavior
Albert Ellis on Shame Attacking Exercises

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