A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 192 - 194 of 299

Question number: 192

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Short Answer Question▾

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What is positive and negative reinforcement (Marks 4)

Explanation

Positive reinforcement can be defined as

  • Occurrence of a behavior

  • Followed by the addition of a stimulus or increase in the intensity of a stimulus

  • Results in the strengthening of the behavior

Negative reinforcement can be defined as

  • Occurrence of a behavior

  • Followed by the removal of a stimulus or decrease in the intensity of a stimulus

  • Results in the strengthening of the behavior

The Positive and negative reinforcement

The Positive and Negative Reinforcement

Question number: 193

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Differentiate inferiority feelings from inferiority complex (Marks 4)

Explanation

Inferiority feelings- The normal condition of all people; the source of all human striving

Inferiority complex- A condition that develops when a person is unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings

Question number: 194

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Describe errors in attribution

a). What is fundamental attribution error? (2 Marks)

b). Define halo effect (2 Marks)

Explanation

a). People when acting as raters of others, tend to attribute the behaviour they view as indicative of stable trait dispositions but when acting as self-raters they tend to perceive their own behaviour as more affected by specific situational influences.

b). Halo effect is the phenomenon in which the initial familiarity that a person has positive traits is used to infer other uniformly positive characteristics.

Fundamental attribution error

Fundamental Attribution Error