A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 192 - 194 of 299

Question 192

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What is positive and negative reinforcement (Marks 4)

Explanation

Positive Reinforcement Can be Defined As

  • Occurrence of a behavior
  • Followed by the addition of a stimulus or increase in the intensity of a stimulus
  • Results in the strengthening of the behavior

Negative Reinforcement Can be Defined As

  • Occurrence of a behavior
  • Followed by the removal of a stimulus or decrease in the intensity of a stimulus
  • Results in the strengthening of the behavior
The Positive and Negative Reinforcement

Question 193

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Differentiate inferiority feelings from inferiority complex (Marks 4)

Explanation

Inferiority feelings- The normal condition of all people; the source of all human striving

Inferiority complex- A condition that develops when a person is unable to compensate for normal inferiority feelings

Question 194

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Describe errors in attribution

  • What is fundamental attribution error? (2 Marks)
  • Define halo effect (2 Marks)

Explanation

  • People when acting as raters of others, tend to attribute the behavior they view as indicative of stable trait dispositions but when acting as self-raters they tend to perceive their own behavior as more affected by specific situational influences.
  • Halo effect is the phenomenon in which the initial familiarity that a person has positive traits is used to infer other uniformly positive characteristics.
Fundamental Attribution Error

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