A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 168 - 169 of 299

Question 168

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Explain intellectualization, regression and sublimation (Marks 6)

Explanation

Intellectualization- Defense mechanism which involves reasoning. In intellectualization, however, the intensity of the anxiety is reduced by a retreat into detached, unemotional and abstract language. For example a nurse may describe in an intellectual fashion an encounter with a dying or angry person

  • Regression- In the face of threat, one may retreat to an earlier pattern of adaptation, possibly a childish or primitive one
  • This is called as regression. For example faced with the upsetting arrival of a new baby or going to school for the first time, a 5 year old may have toilet accidents, revert to “baby talk”, demand cuddling, or suck her thumb
  • Sublimation- for Freud, sublimation was the highest level of ego defense. It consists of redirection of sexual impulses to socially valued activities and goals. For example, a writer may divert some of his or her libido from sexual activity to the creation of a poem or novel, thus indirectly satisfying the same drives

Question 169

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Explain the steps of Ethnographic research (Mark 8)

Explanation

  • Ethnographer starts with the selection of culture, reviewing of the literature pertaining to the culture and identification of variables.
  • The ethnographer then goes about gaining entrance which in turn sets the stage for cultural immersion of the ethnographer in the culture
  • Middle stage of the ethnographic method involving gaining informants, using them to gain yet more informants in a chaining process and gathering data in the form of observational transcripts and interview recordings
  • Data analysis and theory development comes at the end, through theories emerge from cultural immersion and theory articulation by members of the culture
Ethnographic research

Ethnographic Research

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