A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 162 - 164 of 299

Question 162

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What is positive and negative punishment? (Marks 2)

Explanation

Positive punishment areas follows

  • Occurrence of a behavior
  • Followed by presentation of aversive stimulus
  • And as a result, the behavior is less likely to again in the future

Negative punishment are as follows

  • Occurrence of a behavior
  • Followed by removal of pleasant stimulus
  • And as a result, the behavior is less likely to again in the future

Question 163

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List out the contributions of Behavior therapy (Marks 4)

Explanation

Contributions of Behavior therapy are

  • Focuses on behavior, rather than feelings is compatible with many cultures.
  • Strengths include a collaborative relationship between counselor and client in working toward mutually agreed-upon goals, continual assessment to determine if the techniques are suited to client’s unique situations, assessing clients in learning practical skills, an educational focus and stress on self-management strategies
Contributions of Behavior therapy

Contributions of Behavior Therapy

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Question 164

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Enumerate the different types of groups (Mark 10)

Explanation

  • Primary group- There is an intimate face-to-face relationship among the members and the members are having ‘we feeling’ to the maximum. Family play groups and village community comes under this category.
  • Secondary groups- Here the relationships are more or less casual and marked by common interest. Clubs, trade unions are under this category.
  • In-group/we group- Here we identify ourselves with that group which has a common object and common interest. The members of the in group treat others as outsiders.
  • Out-group-It is the group in which the members are considered as outsiders by us. Groups other than the in-group are generally called as out-groups
  • Formal and informal groups- It is generally formed on the basis of specific norms, rules and values. Group of students comes under the category of formal group, whereas peer groups and social clubs, nature of the group is not formal at all. Hence it comes under the category of informal group
The Types of groups

The Types of Groups

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