A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 158 - 161 of 299

Question number: 158

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Give an example for the following (Marks 4)

a) Depressants

b) Stimulants

c) Opiates

d) Hallucinogens

Explanation

Examples of the following:

  • Depressants-Alcohol

  • Stimulants-Amphetamines, cocaine, nicotine and caffeine

  • Opiates-Heron, opium, codeine and morphine

  • Hallucinogens- Cannabis and LSD

Question number: 159

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Expand NIDA (Marks 2)

Explanation

NIDA- National Institute on Drug Abuse

Question number: 160

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In his classic book “The psychopathology of everyday life”, Sigmund Freud clearly stated the principle underlying motivated forgetting. What is the other name for motivated forgetting? Why is it called so? (Marks 2)

Explanation

Motivated forgetting is also known as repression. Repression is an active mental process by which a person “forgets” by “pushing down” into the unconscious any thoughts that arouse anxiety

Motivated forgetting

Motivated Forgetting

Question number: 161

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Explain the role of organization in encoding and storing long term memories (Marks 6)

Explanation

  • One strategy in remembering things well is to organize or arrange, the input so that it fits into existing long-term memory categories, is grouped in some logical manner or it is arranged in some other way that makes sense.

  • The organizational encoding may be inherent in the input itself or it may be supplied by individuals as they learn and remember new things. But the things we learn are not usually inherently well organized.

  • In our everyday learning and memory, we must provide our own organization of the jumble of incoming information. In other words we must do our own organizational encoding of incoming information. This is called as subjective organization

  • Even when the materials are inherently organized, learner-imposed, or subjective, organization occurs

  • One way to study subjective organization is to see whether, in learning and recalling a list of unrelated words, certain stereotyped pattern of recall emerge as learning and recall trials of list are repeated

  • In other words, do people tend to recall pair of words and short strings of words together? They do, and such groupings, or subjective organization lead to better memory