A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 93 - 94 of 299

Question 93

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Define the following (Marks 8)

Explanation

a) Oedipus complex

b) Electra complex

c) Castration anxiety

d) Penis envy

Answer:

  • Oedipus complex- During the phallic stage (ages 4 - 5) the unconscious desire of a boy for his mother accompanied by a desire to replace or destroy his father
  • Electra complex- During the phallic stage (ages 4 - 5) the unconscious desire of a girl for her father accompanied by a desire to replace or destroy his mother
  • Castration anxiety- A boy’s fear during the oedipal period that his penis will be cut off
  • Penis envy- The envy the female feels toward the male because the male possesses a penis, this is accompanied by a sense of loss because the female does not have a penis

Question 94

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Differentiate Glass cliff from Glass ceiling effect (Marks 4)

Explanation

Difference between Glass cliff and Glass ceiling are as follows

  • Glass ceiling exists such that women encounter more barriers than men in their careers and as a result find it difficult to move into top positions
  • Glass cliff exists women are most likely to be appointed to leadership positions when a crisis has occurred, the position is more precarious and there is a greater risk of failure