A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 37 - 39 of 299

Question 37


Write in Brief

One Liner▾

What is Premack’s principle? (Marks 4)


Using a highly probable response for relatively reinforcing another, low probable response is termed as Premack’s principle. For example a child who spent more time in playing (High probable response) and spent less time in studying (low probable response) , his mother tells him that if he spend more time in studying she will allow him to play more.

The Premacks Principle

Question 38


Write in Short

Short Answer▾

Nancy thinks she is best at everything. She thinks her performance is always excellent and is extremely critical of anyone else’s success. She constantly looks for admiration and reassurance from others. This case belongs to which disorder? (Marks 3)


This case belongs to Narcissistic personality disorder. It includes

  • Grandiose sense of self-importance
  • Requests excessive admiration

  • Preoccupied with fantasies of unlimited success, power beauty, love etc.

  • Believes that he/she is unique and special

  • Lack empathy

  • Shows arrogant, haughty behaviors or attitudes

Question 39


Write in Short

Short Answer▾

What do you mean by validity and explain the different types of validity (Mark 10)


  • Validity refers to the degree to which a test measures, what it claims to measure.
  • Criterion- related validity- Idea that a valid test should related closely to other measure of the same theoretical concept.

  • Concurrent validity- Its occurrence is found when criterion measures are achieved at the same time as the test scores. For instance if a test measures anxiety, it would be said to have concurrent validity if it rightly reflects the current level of anxiety experienced by an individual. Concurrent evidence of test validity is usually desirable for achievement tests and diagnostic clinical tests

  • Predictive validity- It occurs when criterion measures are obtained at a time after a test. For example, aptitude tests are useful in identifying who will be more likely to succeed or fail in a particular subject

  • Construct validity- Test should actually measure whatever theoretical construct it supposedly tests and not something else. For example a test of leadership ability should not actually test extraversion.

  • Convergent validity- It means the extent to which a measure is correlated with other measure which is theoretically predicted to correlated with

  • Discriminant validity- This explains the extent to which the operationalization’s is not correlated with other operationalization’s that it theoretically should not be correlated with

The Types of Validity