A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 298 - 298 of 299

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Question 298


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Define language and speech disorders (Mark 10)


  • Language disorders or language impairments involves the processing of linguistic information. Problems that may be experienced can involve grammar (Syntax/morphology) , semantics (meaning) or other aspects of language.
  • Disordered language may be due to a receptive problem that is difficulty in understanding speech sounds (involving impaired language comprehension) . It can also be due to an expressive problem that is difficulty in producing the speech sounds (involving language production)
  • Aphasia- Impairment of language functioning caused by damage to the left hemisphere of the brain. There are different types of aphasia- Broca՚s aphasia, Wernicke՚s aphasia Broca՚s aphasia- caused by damage to the left temporal lobe of the brain. It is characterized by notable impairment in the understanding of spoken words and sentences People with Wernicke՚s aphasia have generally fluent phonetic and syntactic but semantically coherent speech In language-based learning disability, many children with reading problems have spoken language problems
  • Dyslexia- A disorder in children who despite conventional classroom experience, fail to attain the language skills of reading, writing and spelling commensurate with their intellectual disabilities
  • Auditory dyslexia- Involves difficulty with sounds of letters or groups of letters. The sounds are perceived as jumbled or not heard correctly.
  • Dysgraphia- Refers to the child՚s difficulty holding and controlling a pencil so that the correct markings can be made on the paper
  • Specific Language Impairment- Developmental language disorder in the absence of frank neurological, sensorimotor, nonverbal cognitive or social emotional deficits
  • Dyspraxia- Disorder characterized by impairment in the ability to plan and carry out sensory and motor tasks
  • Speech disorders are characterized by difficulty in producing normal speech patterns. These disorders include voice disorders (abnormalities on pitch, volume, vocal quality, resonance or duration of sounds) .
  • Speech sound disorders/articulation disorders- (Problems in producing speech sounds)
  • Fluency disorders- Impairment in the normal rate or rhythm of speech such as stuttering
Language and Speech Disorders

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