A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 281 - 282 of 299

Question number: 281

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What do you mean by reliability and list out the methods of estimating reliability? (Mark 10)

Explanation

  • The idea behind reliability is that any significant results must be repeatable. Researchers must be able to perform exactly the same experiment under same conditions and generate the same results

  • Test-retest reliability- The degree to which the same test score would be obtained on another occasion

  • Inter observer reliability- The typical degree of agreement between scores

  • Split-half reliability- Form of reliability in which scores from the two halves of a test (e. g. even items versus odd items) are correlated with one another; the correlation is then adjusted for test length

  • Parallel form reliability- Compares two equivalent forms of a test that measure the same attribute. The two forms use different items. However the rules used to select items of a particular difficulty level are the same.

Methods of estimating reliability

Methods of Estimating Reliability

Question number: 282

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Explain Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) phenomenon (Marks 6)

Explanation

One way to study the organization of information in long-term memory is to see what happens when we search through our library of experience to retrieve a memory, Suppose you are trying to retrieve a person’s name but you cannot quite remember it; the name is on the “tip of the tongue, ” but you just cannot recall it. If we look at this tip of the tongue phenomenon in greater detail, we find evidence for the organization of long term memory.

  • The search through memory store in the TOT state is not random.

  • If the name you are looking for is Martin, you may come up with Mertin or Morton, but not brown.

  • Sounded like the target word

  • Started with the same letter as the target word

  • Continued with the same number of syllables as the target word

  • Had a meaning similar to that of the target word

  • Thus TOT phenomenon indicates that information is organized in long term memory

  • The words retrieved in the TOT example are part of our general store of knowledge about the world

The Tip-of-the-Tongue

The Tip-of-the-Tongue