A-AS Level (CIE) Psychology: Specimen Questions with Answers 281 - 282 of 299

Question 281

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What do you mean by reliability and list out the methods of estimating reliability? (Mark 10)

Explanation

  • The idea behind reliability is that any significant results must be repeatable. Researchers must be able to perform exactly the same experiment under same conditions and generate the same results
  • Test-retest reliability- The degree to which the same test score would be obtained on another occasion
  • Inter observer reliability- The typical degree of agreement between scores
  • Split-half reliability- Form of reliability in which scores from the two halves of a test (e. g. even items versus odd items) are correlated with one another; the correlation is then adjusted for test length
  • Parallel form reliability- Compares two equivalent forms of a test that measure the same attribute. The two forms use different items. However the rules used to select items of a particular difficulty level are the same.
Methods of Estimating Reliability

Question 282

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Explain Tip-of-the-Tongue (TOT) phenomenon (Marks 6)

Explanation

One way to study the organization of information in long-term memory is to see what happens when we search through our library of experience to retrieve a memory, Suppose you are trying to retrieve a person՚s name but you cannot quite remember it; the name is on the “tip of the tongue,” but you just cannot recall it. If we look at this tip of the tongue phenomenon in greater detail, we find evidence for the organization of long term memory.

  • The search through memory store in the TOT state is not random.
  • If the name you are looking for is Martin, you may come up with Mertin or Morton, but not brown.
  • Sounded like the target word
  • Started with the same letter as the target word
  • Continued with the same number of syllables as the target word
  • Had a meaning similar to that of the target word
  • Thus TOT phenomenon indicates that information is organized in long term memory
  • The words retrieved in the TOT example are part of our general store of knowledge about the world
The Tip-of-The-Tongue