A-AS Level (CIE) Hinduism: Specimen Questions with Answers 4 - 4 of 41

Question 4

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Explain Sat Darshan in Hindu philosophy.

Explanation

The Hinduism consists of sat Darshan that is six schools of philosophies. They are-Nyaya, Vaiseshika, Sankhya, Yoga, Mimansa and Vedanta. Let us see more about these six philosophies: -

  • Nyaya-It is sage Gautama, who propounded Nyaya Darshan. This system contains philosophical enquiry. Nyaya means justice or judgement. Nyaya concerned about knowledge, belief, nature, origin. This system follows these ideas or concepts-Pratyaksha (perception), Anumana (inference), Upamana (comparison), Shabda (testimony).

  • Vaiseshika-This is either a supplement or substitute of Nyaya system. Its sage Kanada who composed this system. This system accepts only two pramanas-Pratyaksha and Anumana. Vaiseshika proposes the Paramanu vada or theory. It’s says that the entire universe was created by atoms or paramanus.

  • Sankhya-Sage Kapila founded this system. It is of dualistic nature-Purusha and Prakriti. And thinking, perception, willing is all performed by internal organs, such as-Budhi (intellect), Ahankara (ego) and mind (manah) -all evolved from the Nature (Prakriti).

  • Yoga-This was founded by sage Patanjali. He authored ‘Yoga sutras’. Yoga means Yuj or union. It is all about the union of body, mind and soul and the union of the jivatma and Paramatma (eternal soul). Yoga has eight components that is known as ‘Ashtanga Yoga’ or eight limbs. They are Yama (absistance), Niyama (observance), Asana (posture), Pranayama (breathing), Pratyahara (withdrawal), Dharana (concentration), Dhyana (meditation), Samadhi (absorption).

  • Yoga system accepts three fundamental realities-Ishwara, Purusha, and Prakriti. As per Patanjali, Yoga helps us to ‘chittavrittinirodha’, that is total control over the mind.

  • Purvamimansa-This system was propounded by Jaimini. It gives importance to ritual performances. It never mentions the Brahman or existence of the god but, accepts the existence of the soul even after the death and enjoys the fruit of rituals that performed in previous births.

  • According to Jaimini, souls are eternal and go through the transmigration as the result of one’s own actions.

  • Vedanta-Vedanta is also known as Uttara Mimamsa. This system has no founder at all. Vedanta is the compilation of three schools of thought-Advaita, Visishtadvaita, Dvaita. All these three schools have three different founders-Adi Shankara, Ramanuja, Madhvacharya.

  • Advaita claims non-dualism, Visishtadvaita claims advanced non-dualism and Dvaita claims dualism.

These all are the sat Darshan or six philosophies in Hinduism.