A-AS Level (CIE) Business Studies Paper-1: Specimen Questions with Answers 50 - 50 of 50

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Question 50


Describe in Detail


Explain the theory of motivation


Frederick Herzberg conducted a research study to know the feelings of 200 engineers and accountants in nine different companies in Pittsburgh, USA. During structured interview, they were asked to describe a few job conditions in which they felt “exceptionally good or bad” about jobs. On analyzing the information collected by interviews, Herzberg concluded that there are two categories of needs essentially independent of each other.

Hygiene Factors

These are job conditions which operate primarily to dissatisfy employees when the conditions are absent. But their presence does not motivate them. These factors are also termed as maintenance factors as they are required to maintain minimum level of productivity of employees.

  • Company policy and administration
  • Relationship with subordinates
  • Security
  • Salary
  • Personal life
  • Relationship with supervisor
  • Supervision
  • Status
  • Work conditions
  • Relationship with peers

Motivational Factors Motivators

These factors have a positive effect on job satisfaction often resulting in one՚s total output. Most of these factors are intrinsic to the job. These are:

  • Achievement
  • Advancement
  • Growth
  • Recognition
  • Work itself
  • Responsibility

Any increase in these factors will act as motivators for satisfying the employees, however any decrease will not affect their satisfaction. Herzberg maintains that it also depends upon the personality characteristics of individuals, how they seek dissatisfaction these factors. Some individuals are motivation seekers who look for growth and advancement. Others are maintenance seekers who tend to be more concerned with work conditions like type of supervision, salary etc.

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